In Ubuntu, when you need to run a command as root, you just have to run the command with a preceding “sudo” i.e.
. However, in Debian (and many other Linux) it is may not be set as such by default. To set it as default and to allow the normal user to execute the command as root, just follow the following instructions:
To install sudo, just run the following commands:
apt-get install sudo gksu
Add yourself to Sudoers list
First to open /etc/sudoers as root in terminal, run the follwing commands:
Now, scroll to the bottom of the file and add the following line:
username ALL=(ALL) ALL
where “username” is the username you use to login to your computer.
Press Ctrl+O followed by ENTER to save /etc/sudoers and you are done.
I have installed Debian Squeeze Testing replacing Ubuntu 10.10 Maverick Meerkat and miss some applications only available via Launchpad PPAs. Not that they can’t be compiled from their sources or installed by downloading debs, but it would be great if updates were available from update manager like in Ubuntu. So I decided to add some Ubuntu PPAs and they are working fine. So, I decided to share here with the hope that it would be helpful to my readers.
If you want to install a PPA in Squeeze Testing, make sure that the PPA has an entry for Ubuntu 10.04 Lucid Lynx. Not that it will never work with Maverick PPAs, but Lucid is a better choice as Debian Squeeze has package versions more similar to Lucid than Maverick or Natty. Thus, it is a better choice to use Lucid PPAs. Instead of using just the PPA name (for example ppa:tiheum/equinox for Equinox theme PPA) use the deb line for Lucid (eg. deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/tiheum/equinox/ubuntu lucid main ) and add it to /etc/apt/sources.list or Software Sources (or Synaptic>Settings>Repositories>Third Party Source). After adding that, copy the PPA signature (available in “Signing Key” section in PPA page), eg. 1024R/4631BBEA for Equinox Theme PPA. Just use the part after “/” (i.e. 4631BBEA for this example) and use the following command in the terminal to get GPG keys for the PPA:
Pastie is a clipboard manager for gnome with best feature set. It is available in Launchpad PPA for Ubuntu Lucid Lynx and Maverick Meerkat. However, it can be installed in Debian Squeeze/Testing from the same PPA.
To install, just open up Synaptic>Settings>Repositories>Third Party Software and click Add. Add the following line (yes Lucid, not Maverick):
deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/hel-sheep/pastie/ubuntu lucid main
When added, close the Repositories dialog and close Synaptic. Now, open up the terminal and execute the following commands:
A recent Web Upd8 article featured a tool called Meta Backup, which unfortunately fails to work as expected unless all the repositories are already configured and there are no orphan packages (not sure of the term, but I’m referring to those that are listed in Synaptic>Origin>Local) .
I created a simple script which can help achieve what Meta Backup wishes to achieve, which is to install the same set of packages in another computer running same version of Ubuntu. Please keep backup of your /etc/apt in both computers. I am not responsible for any harm done to you or your PC by using this script. Having said that, here it is:
I am using Shutter screenshot tool as default screenshot tool. I installed it in my Ubuntu 10.10 Maverick Meerkat from the Shutter Team official PPA. The latest available version in that PPA is 0.86~ppa4. The PPA has not been updated for quite some time now. I wanted some bugs to be fixed and when I saw bug pages, they had already been fixed in latest revision. So, I decided to install it.
To do so, I went through the following process. Install Dependencies
I am using Ubuntu 10.10 Maverick Meerkat and have been using the default theme for quite some time. I was bored with the default boot screen and decided to change it. If you don’t like the purple color of Ubuntu, you can easily change the Desktop theme and wallpaper, but the Pink/Purple Ubuntu Plymouth boot splash is a little difficult to get rid of. You can install other available boot splash by installing other packages, but I like the default boot screen, and just wanted to change its color. To do that, I just cloned the boot screen and made some changes so that it looks like the following.
Here is how I did it. Fire up the terminal and get ready.
Search for “Window.SetBackgroundTopColor” (without quotes) and change the 2 lines so that they look like the following:
Window.SetBackgroundTopColor (0.85, 0.85, 0.85); # Nice colour on top of the screen fading to
Window.SetBackgroundBottomColor (0.75, 0.75, 0.75); # an equally nice colour on the bottom
I have chosen these colors: #DADADA RGB: 217, 217, 217 and #C0C0C0 RGB: 192,192,192 You can choose any color you like. Find the RGB using gcolor2 (install this if you don’t have it installed) of the desired color and divide the RGB values with 256 to get the values to use. Save the file and exit.
Edit the Ubuntu Logo and other images: Install Gimp if you haven’t already done so and run the following:
The white logo may not look good with the background above. You may change the color however you like. For my selection of background color, black would look great, so I just inverted colors (Colors>Invert). Once done editing the image, save the file and quit Gimp. Now, change the progress dots:
The above command lists all the installed themes as shown:
There are 2 choices for the alternative default.plymouth (providing /lib/plymouth/themes/default.plymouth).
Selection Path Priority Status
0 /lib/plymouth/themes/ubuntu-logo-nonpink/ubuntu-logo.plymouth 100 manual mode
* 1 /lib/plymouth/themes/ubuntu-logo/ubuntu-logo.plymouth 100 manual mode
Press enter to keep the current choice[*], or type selection number:
Enter the number corresponding to the theme you want to use. In my case, it is “0”. So I entered 0 and pressed ENTER. In your case, it may be different.
Update Initial Boot Image Now, you will need to run one more command to update the boot images and you are done.
To be able to display weekly/monthly traffic totals, you will need to install and configure vnstat first. After that, you will be able to monitor traffic totals from command line using the following command in the terminal:
To view daily traffic totals, you can use the command:
To view weekly traffic totals, use the command:
Similarly, to view monthly totals, use the command:
If you have an interface other than eth0, you will need to specify it via command line option “-i”, so if your interface is called ppp0, the above commands will respectively be as follows:
Configure and Generate Wallpapers
Now, cd to Game-of-Life-Wallpaper
Then, open the configuration files with gedit:
Find the section “screen resolution” and make necessary changes based on your Desktop resolution. Save and Close gedit and come back to terminal. Now, run gol.py to generate the wallpapers:
Once done, you will see message like this one:
Done! You can now set the wallpaper by selecting ‘/home/username/path/Game-of-Life-Wallpaper/demos/achimsp144_106/achimsp144_106.xml’ as the wallpaper.
Note the part that looks like “/home/username/path/Game-of-Life-Wallpaper/demos/achimsp144_106/achimsp144_106.xml”, and go to Appearance Preferences > Background (Right click on desktop > Change Desktop Background) and then click Add, then navigate to that XML file and set it as Desktop.